Photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collectors , sometimes known as hybrid PV / T systems or PVT , are systems that convert solar radiation into thermal and electrical energy . These systems combine a solar cell , which converts sunlight into electricity, with a solar thermal collector , which captures the remaining energy and removes waste heat from the PV module . and thus be more efficient energy than solar photovoltaic (PV) or solar thermal alone.  A significant amount of research has gone into developing PVT technology since the 1970s. 
Photovoltaic cells Suffer from a drop in efficiency with the rise in temperature due to Increased resistance . Such systems can be engineered to carry heat from their cells by lowering resistance.  Although this is an effective method, it causes the thermal component to be compared to a solar thermal collector.
A number of PV / T collectors in different categories are commercially available and may be divided into the following categories:
- PV / T liquid collector
- PV / T air collector
- PV / Ta Liquid and Air Collector
- PV / T concentrator (CPVT)
PV / T liquid collector
The basic water-cooled design uses a channel for direct flow of various modules or modules. The fluid flow arrangement through the cooling element will determine which systems are most suited to.
In a standard fluid-based system, a working fluid , typically water, glycol or mineral oil is then piped through these pipes or flat chillers. The heat of the world is the result of the working fluid (presuming that the working fluid is cooler than the operating temperature of the cells). In closed-loop systems this heat is Either exhausted (to cool it), or Transferred at a heat exchanger , Where It flows to icts application. In open-loop systems, this heat is used, or exhausted before the fluid returns to the PV cells.  It is also possible to disperse nanoparticles in the liquid to create a liquid filter for PV / T applications.   The basic advantage of this type of thermal collector and the collector can operate at different temperatures.
PV / T air collector
The basic air-cooled design uses a hollow, conductive metal housing to mount the photo-voltaic (PV) panels. Heat is radiated from the panels into the enclosed space, where the air is heated in a building HVAC system to recapture heat energy, and is vented from the top of the structure.
While energy transfer is a cost effective, the infrastructure required has low cost and complexity; basically a shallow metal box. Placement of PV panels can be vertical or angled. 
PV / T concentrator (CPVT)
A photovoltaic (PV) cells need, which is more expensive and efficient multi-junction photovoltaic cells can be used to maximize the ratio of produced high-value electrical power versus lower-value thermal power. A major limitation of high-concentrator (ie HCPV and HCPVT) systems Is That They Maintain Their advantage over conventional c-Si / mc-Si collector only in areas Consistently That Remain free of atmospheric aerosol contaminants (eg light clouds, smog, etc. ). Concentration system performance is especially degraded because 1) radiation is reflected and scattered outside the small (often less than 1 ° -2 °) angleoptics of the collection, and 2) absorption of specific components of the solar spectrum causes one or more series junctions dans le MJ cells to underperfom. 
Concentrator systems also require reliable control systems to protect the cells from damaging over-temperature conditions. Under ideal conditions, about 75% of the suns power directly incident upon such systems can be gathered as electricity and heat. For more details, see the discussion of CPVT within the article for concentrated photovoltaics .
- Solar air conditioning
- Photovoltaic system
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- Jump up^ SA Kalogirou, Y. Tripanagnostopoulos (30 January 2006). These systems are most often used for domestic hot water (DHW) and electricity production
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