Concentrated solar power

Concentrated solar power (also called Expired concentrating solar power , Concentrated solar thermal , and CSP ) systems generate solar power by using mirrors or lenses to concentrate a wide area of sunlight, or thermal solar energy , onto a small area. Electricity is generated when the concentrated light is converted to heat, which drives to a heat engine(usually a steam turbine ) connected to an electrical power generator [1] [2] [3] or powers to thermochemical reaction (experimental as of 2013 ). [4] [5][6] Heat storage in molten earths allows solar thermal plants to continue to generate and add value to such systems when compared to photovoltaic panels.

CSP is being commercialized and the CSP had a capacity of 4,815 MW in 2016 up from 354 MW in 2005. As of 2017, Spain had a total capacity of 2,300 MW making this country the world leader in CSP. United States follows with 1,740 MW. Interest is also notable in North Africa and the Middle East, as well as India and China. The global market has been dominated by parabolic-trough plants, which accounted for 90% of CSP plants at one point. [7] The largest CSP projects in the world are Ivanpah Solar Power Facility (392 MW) in the United States (which uses solar power tower technology), Mojave Solar Project (354 MW) in the United States (which uses parabolic troughs) and Dhirubhai Ambani Solar Park(125 MW) in India (which uses Fresnel reflectors ) [8]

In most cases, CSP technologies currently can not compete with photovoltaics (solar panels), which have experienced substantial growth in recent years. [9] CSP generally needs large amount of direct solar radiation , and its energy generation falls dramatically with cloud cover. This is in contrast with photovoltaics, which can produce some of the same radiation. For example, base load purpose CSP tariff in the extreme dry Atacama region of Chile reached below 5.0 / kWh. [10] [11] In 2017, CSP represents less than 2% of worldwide installed capacity of solar electricity plants. [12]In 2017, drastically falling CSP plants are turning clean CSP cheaper compared to other base load power plants using gas / coal / nuclear fuel even in high moisture and dusty atmosphere at sea level. [13] [14]

CSP is not confused with concentrator photovoltaics (CPV). In CPV, the concentrated sunlight is converted directly to electricity via the photovoltaic effect .


A legend has it that Archimedes used a “burning glass” to concentrate sunlight on the invading Roman fleet and repel them from Syracuse . In 1973 a Greek scientist, Dr. Ioannis Sakkas, curious about whether Archimedes could have really destroyed the Roman fleet in 212 BC, lined up nearly 60 Greek sailors, each holding an oblong mirror tipped to the sun’s rays and direct them to a tar -covered plywood silhouette 49 m (160 ft) away. The ship caught fire after a few minutes; however, historians continue to doubt the Archimedes story. [15]

In 1866, Auguste Mouchout used a parabolic trough to produce steam for the first solar steam engine. The first patent for a solar collector was obtained by the Italian Alessandro Battaglia in Genoa, Italy, in 1886. Over the following years, John Ericsson and Frank Shuman developed concentrated solar-powered ventures for irrigation, refrigeration, and locomotion. In 1913 Shuman finished at 55 HP parabolic solar thermal energy station in Maadi, Egypt for irrigation. [16] [17] [18] [19] The first solar-power system using a mirror dish was built by Dr. RH Goddard, who was already known for his research on liquid-fueled rockets and wrote an article in 1929 in which he asserted that all the previous obstacles had been addressed. [20]

Professor Giovanni Francia (1911-1980) designed and built the first concentrated-solar plant, which entered into operation in Sant’Ilario, near Genoa, Italy in 1968. This plant had the architecture of today’s solar-powered solar collectors. the center of a solar collectors field. The plant was able to produce 1 MW with superheated steam at 100 bar and 500 ° C. [21] The 10 MW Solar One power tower was developed in Southern California in 1981, but the parabolic-trough technology of the nearby Solar Energy Generating Systems (SEGS), started in 1984, was more workable. The 354 MW SEGS was the largest solar power plant in the world, until the 390 MW Ivanpah power tower project reached full power.

A 5 MW CSP power tower, Solar One , was converted to a 10 MW CSP power tower, Solar Two , decommissioned in 1999. Due to the success of Solar Two, a commercial power plant, called Solar Tres Power Tower , was built in Spain, renamed Gemasolar Thermosolar Plant. Gemasolar’s results have been paved for the Crescent Dunes project . Ivanpah difficulties also arise from the benefits of thermal storage. Solana in Arizona is at 25% below projected numbers, Ivanpah is in California, is at 40% below projected numbers. A larger photovoltaic power station , like the 290 MW Agua Caliente Solar Projectpeaked at most to 741 GWh in 2014, compared with the 280 MW Solana growing 719 GWh. Another operator, that of the 280 MW Genesis Solar , projected only 580 GWh production and instead made 621 GWh in 2015.

CSP was originally treated as a competitor to photovoltaics, and was built without energy storage. By 2015 Commercial PV power Was selling for 1 / 3 recent CSP contracts. [22] [23] However, more, by 2015 CSP was being made with 3 to 12 hours of thermal energy storage, making CSP the dispatchable form of solar energy [24] . As such, it is more likely to compete with natural gas for flexible, dispatchable power. With storage included, CSP is the cheapest form of solar dispatchable at utility-scale. quote needed ]

Current technology

CSP is used to produce electricity (sometimes called solar thermoelectricity, usually generated through steam ). Concentrated-solar technology systems use mirrors or lenses with tracking systems to focus a wide area of sunlight onto a small area. The concentrated light is then used as a heat source for a conventional power plant (solar thermoelectricity). The solar concentrators used in CSP systems can also be used to provide industrial heat or cooling, such as in solar air conditioning .

Concentrating technologies, namely parabolic trough , dish , concentrating linear Fresnel reflector , and solar power tower . [25] Although simple, these solar concentrators are quite far from the theoretical maximum concentration. [26] [27] For example, the parabolic-trough concentration Gives about 1 / 3 of the theoretical maximum for the design acceptance angle , That Is, for the Sami overall tolerances for the system. Approaching the theoretical maximum can be achieved by using more elaborate concentrators based on nonimaging optics . [26] [27] [28]

Different types of concentrators produce different temperatures and correspondingly different thermodynamic efficiencies, due to differences in the way that they track the sun and focus light. New innovations in CSP technology are leading to more cost-effective systems. [29] [30]

Parabolic trough

A parabolic trough consists of a linear parabolic reflector that concentrates light onto a storeroom along the reflector’s focal line. The receiver is one of the most important of the parabolic mirrors. The reflector follows the sun during the daylight hours by tracking along a single axis. A working fluid (eg molten salt [31] ) is heated to 150-350 ° C (302-662 ° F) as it flows through the receiver and is then used as a heat source for a power generation system. [32] Trough systems are the most developed CSP technology. The Solar Energy Generating Systems (SEGS) plants in California, the world’s first commercial parabolic trough plants, Acciona’sNevada Solar One near Boulder City, Nevada , and Andasol , Europe’s first commercial parabolic trough plant are representative, along with Solar Plataforma of Almería’s SSPS-DCS test facilities in Spain . [33]

Enclosed trough

The design encapsulates the solar thermal system within a greenhouse-like glasshouse. The glasshouse creates a protected environment and the elements that can negatively impact the reliability and efficiency of the solar thermal system. [34] Lightweight curved solar-reflecting mirrors are suspended from the ceiling of the glasshouse by wires. A single-axis tracking systempositions the mirrors to retrieve the optimal amount of sunlight. The mirrors concentrate the sunlight and focus on a network of stationary steel pipes, also suspended from the glasshouse structure. [35]Water is carried along the length of the pipe, which is boiled to generate steam when intense solar radiation is applied. Sheltering the mirrors from the wind allows them to achieve higher temperatures and prevents dust from building up on the mirrors. [34]

GlassPoint Solar , the company that created the Enclosed Trough design, states its technology to produce heat for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) for about $ 5 per million. [36]

Solar power tower

A solar power tower consists of an array of dual-axis tracking reflectors ( heliostats ) that concentrate sunlight on a central receiver atop a tower; the receiver contains a fluid deposit, which can consist of molten salt . Optically a solar power tower is the same as a circular Fresnel reflector. The working fluid in the receiver is heated to 500-1000 ° C (773-1.273 K or 932-1.832 ° F) and then used as a heat source for a power generation or energy storage system. [32] An advantage of the solar tower is the reflectors can be adjusted instead of the whole tower. Power-tower development is better than trough systems, but they offer higher efficiency and better energy storage capability.

The Solar Two in Daggett , California and the CESA-1 in Solar Plataforma of Almeria Almeria, Spain, are the most representative demonstration plants.

The Planta Solar 10 (PS10) in Sanlucar la Mayor , Spain, is the first commercial utility-scale solar power tower in the world.

The 377 MW Ivanpah Solar Power Facility , located in the Mojave Desert , is the largest CSP facility in the world, and uses three power towers. [37] Ivanpah generated only 0.652 TWh (63%) of its energy sources, and the other 0.388 TWh (37%) was generated by natural gas burning. [38] [39] [40]

The National Solar Thermal Test Facility, NSTTF located in Albuquerque , New Mexico, is an experimental solar thermal test facility with a heliostat field capable of producing 6 MW. [41]

Fresnel reflectors

Main article: Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector

Fresnel reflectors are made of many thin, flat mirror strips. Flat mirrors allow more reflective surface in the same amount of space than a parabolic reflector, thus capturing more of the sunlight available, and they are much cheaper than parabolic reflectors. Fresnel reflectors can be used in various size CSPs. [42] [43]

Fresnel reflectors are sometimes considered to be a technology with a worse output than other methods. The cost efficiency of this model is what causes some of the highest ratings. Some new models of Fresnel Reflectors with Ray Tracing capabilities have been tested and proven to be higher than the standard version. [44]

Dish Stirling

A dish Stirling or dish engine system consists of a stand-alone parabolic reflector that concentrates light onto a stolen point at the reflector’s focal point. The reflector tracks the Sun along two axes. The working fluid in the receiver is heated to 250-700 ° C (482-1.292 ° F) and then used by a Stirling engine to generate power. [32] Parabolic-dish systems provide high solar-to-electric efficiency (between 31% and 32%), and their modular nature provides scalability. The Stirling Energy Systems (SES), United Sun Systems (USS), and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) dishes at UNLV , and Australian National University’s Big Dish in Canberra , Australia are representative of this technology. A world record for solar thermal efficiency was set at 31.25% by SES dishes at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) in New Mexico on January 31, 2008, at cold, bright day. [45] According to its developer, Ripasso Energy , a Swedish firm, in 2015 its Dish Sterling System being tested in the Kalahari Desert in South Africa showed 34% efficiency. [46] The SES installation in Maricopa, Phoenix was the largest Stirling Dish power installation in the world until it was sold to United Sun Systems. Subsequently, larger parts of the installation have been moved to China as part of the huge energy demand.

Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery

Main article: Solar thermal enhanced oil recovery

Heat from the sun can be used to provide viscous and easier to pump. Solar power tower and parabolic troughs may be used to provide the power Solar thermal enhanced oil recovery can extend the life of oilfields with very thick oil which would not otherwise be economical to pump. [47]

CSP with thermal energy storage

See also: Thermal energy storage and solar thermal energy

In a CSP plant that includes storage, the solar energy is first used to heat the molten salt or synthetic oil to store thermal / heat energy at high temperature in insulated tanks [48] . [49] Later hot molten salt is used for steam production to generate electricity by steam turbo generator as per requirement. [50] THUS solar energy qui est disponible en daylight is used only to generate electricity round the clock on demand as a Load Following power plant. [51] The thermal storage capacity is indicated in terms of power generation at nameplate capacity . Unlike solar PVor CSP without storage, the power generation of solar thermal storage plants is dispatchable and self-sustainablesimilar to coal / gas-fired power plants. [52]

Deployment around the world

Worldwide CSP capacity since 1984 in MW p
National CSP capacities in 2016 (MW p )
Country Total Added
 spain 2,300 0
 United States 1,738 0
 india 225 0
 South Africa 200 100
 Morocco 180 0
 United Arab Emirates 100 0
 algeria 25 0
 egypt 20 0
 australia 12 0
 china 10 10
 thailand 5 0
Source : REN21 Global Status Report, June, 2017 [53]

The commercial deployment of CSP plants started in 1984 in the US with the SEGS plants. The last SEGS plant was completed in 1990. From 1991 to 2005, no CSP plants were built anywhere in the world. Global installed CSP-capacity increased nearly tenfold between 2004 and 2013 and grew at an average of 50 percent per year during the last five years. [54] : 51 In 2013, worldwide installed capacity increased by 36% or nearly 0.9 gigawatt (GW) to more than 3.4 GW. Spain and the United StatesThe global leaders, while the number of countries in the world, are growing. 2014 was the best year for CSP but was followed by a major decline in the world in 2016. There is a notable trend towards developing countries in the world.

CSP is also more competitive with photovoltaic solar power and with photovoltaic concentrator (CPV), a fast-growing technology that is just as good. [55] [56] In addition, a novel solar CPV / CSP hybrid system has been proposed recently. [57]

Worldwide Concentrated Solar Power (MW p )
year 1984 1985 1989 1990 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Installed 14 60 200 80 0 1 74 55 179 307 629 803 872 925 420 110
cumulative 14 74 274 354 354 355 429 484 663 969 1,598 2,553 3,425 4,335 4,705 4,815
Sources : REN21 [53] [58] : 146 [54] : 51  · [59]  · IRENA [60]


The conversion efficiency {\ displaystyle \ eta}of the incident solar radiation into mechanical work – without Considering the ultimate conversion step into electricity by a generator power – depends on the thermal radiation properties of the solar receiver and on the heat engine (eg steam turbine). Solar irradiation is first converted into heat by the solar receiver with the efficiency{\ displaystyle \ eta _ {Receiver}} and subsequently the heat is converted into the heat engine with the efficiency {\ displaystyle \ eta _ {Carnot}}, using Carnot’s principle . [61] [62] For a solar receiver providing a heat source at temperature{\ displaystyle T_ {H}} and a heat sink at room temperature {\ displaystyle T ^ {0}}, the overall conversion efficiency can be calculated as follows:

{\ displaystyle \ eta = \ eta _ {\ mathrm {Receiver}} \ cdot \ eta _ {\ mathrm {Carnot}}}
with {\ displaystyle \ eta _ {\ mathrm {Carnot}} = 1 – {\ frac {T ^ {0}} {T_ {H}}}}
and {\ displaystyle \ eta _ {\ mathrm {Receiver}} = {\ frac {Q _ {\ mathrm {absorbed}} -Q _ {\ mathrm {lost}}} {Q _ {\ mathrm {solar}}}}}
Where {\ displaystyle Q _ {\ mathrm {solar}}}, {\ displaystyle Q _ {\ mathrm {absorbed}}}, {\ displaystyle Q _ {\ mathrm {lost}}}are respectively the incoming solar flux and the fluxes absorbed and lost by the solar receiver system.

For a solar stream {\ displaystyle I} (eg {\ displaystyle I = 1000 \, \ mathrm {W / m ^ {2}}}) concentrated {\ displaystyle C} times with an efficiency {\ displaystyle \ eta _ {Optics}} on the receiver with a collecting area {\ displaystyle A}and an absorptivity {\ displaystyle \ alpha}:

{\ displaystyle Q _ {\ mathrm {solar}} = \ eta _ {\ matthm {Optics}} ICA},
{\ displaystyle Q _ {\ mathrm {absorbed}} = \ alpha Q _ {\ mathrm {solar}}},

For simplicity’s sake, one can assume that the losses are only radiative ones (a fair assumption for high temperatures), thus for a reradiating area A and an emissivity {\ displaystyle \ epsilon}applying the Stefan-Boltzmann law yields:

{\ displaystyle Q _ {\ mathrm {lost}} = A \ epsilon \ sigma T_ {H} ^ {4}}

Simplifying these equations by considering perfect optics{\ displaystyle \ eta _ {\ mathrm {Optics}}} = 1), collecting and reradiating areas and maximum absorptivity and emissivity ({\ displaystyle \ alpha} = 1, {\ displaystyle \ epsilon} = 1) then substituting in the first equation gives

{\ displaystyle \ eta = \ left (1 – {\ frac {\ sigma T_ {H} ^ {4}} {IC}} \ right) \ cdot \ left (1 – {\ frac {T ^ {0}} T_ {{H}}} \ right)}

The graph shows that the overall efficiency does not increase steadily with the receiver’s temperature. Although the heat engine’s efficiency (Carnot) increases with higher temperature, the receiver’s efficiency does not. On the contrary, the receiver’s efficiency is decreasing, as the amount of energy can not be absorbed (Q lost ) by the fourth power as a function of temperature. Hence, there is a maximum reachable temperature. When the receiver is null (blue curve on the figure below), T max is:{\ displaystyle T _ {\ mathrm {max}} = \ left ({\ frac {IC} {\ sigma}} \ right) ^ {0.25}}

There is a temperature T opt for the qui est maximum efficiency, ie efficiency When the derivative relative to the receiver temperature is null:

{\ displaystyle {\ frac {d \ eta} {dT_ {H}}} (T _ {\ mathrm {opt}}) = 0}

Therefore, this leads us to the following equation:

{\ displaystyle T_ {opt} ^ {5} – (0.75T ^ {0}) T _ {\ mathrm {opt}} ^ {4} – {\ frac {T ^ {0} IC} {4 \ sigma}} = 0}

Solving this equation numerically allows us to obtain the optimum process temperature according to the solar concentration ratio {\ displaystyle C} (red curve on the figure below)

C 500 1000 5000 10000 45000 (max for Earth)
Tmax 1720 2050 3060 3640 5300
opt 970 1100 1500 1720 2310

Theoretical efficiencies aside, real-world experience of CSP reveals a 25% -60% shortfall in projected production.


As of 2017, they are economically competitive with fossil fuels in certain regions, such as Chile, Australia [63] , and the Middle East and North Africa Region (MENA) [64] . Nathaniel Bullard, a solar analyst at Bloomberg New Energy Finance, calculated that the cost of electricity at the Ivanpah Solar Power Facility , a project contracted in 2009 and completed in 2014 in Southern California, would be less than that of photovoltaic power and about the same as that from natural gas. [65] However, due to the rapid price decline of photovoltaics , in November 2011, Google announced that they would not invest further in Google’s CSP projects had invested US $ 168 million on BrightSource. [66][67] IRENA has published on June 2012 a series of studies titled: “Renewable Energy Cost Analysis”. The CSP study shows the cost of both building and operation of CSP plants. Costs are expected to decrease, but there are insufficient facilities to clearly establish the learning curve.

By 2012, there was 1.9 GW of CSP installed, with 1.8 GW of that being parabolic trough. [68] The US Department of Energy publishes the CSP power plants at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) under a contract from SolarPACES , the international network of CSP researchers and industry experts. As of 2017, there is 5 GW of CSP installed globally, with most of that in Spain at 2.3 GW, and the US at 1.3 GW.

At the 2016 Chile auction, SolarReserve bid $ 63 / MWh ( ¢ 6.3 / kWh) for 24-hour power with no subsidies, competing with other types such as LNG gas turbines. [11] In 2017, the rate of cholesterol fell by 9.4% per kWh in May, to be reduced to 5 cents in October. [69] In May, Dubai Electricity and Water (DEWA) received 9.4 cents per kWh . In August DEWA signed a contract with Saudi-based ACWA Power at 7.3 cents per kWh . In September, SolarReserve signed a contract to supply the evening peak in South Australia at 6.1 cents per kWh [69], lower than the price of natural gas generation. In October, 2017, SolarReserve bid into the 2017 Chilean Auction at 5 cents per kWh [10] [70] .

As of November 2017, prices in the MENA Region (Middle East and North Africa) are at 7 cents per kWh or lower according to ACWA Power . [71]



Until 2012, solar-thermal electricity generation is eligible for payment (Article 2 RD 661/2007), if the system capacity does not exceed the following limits:

  • Systems registered in the register of systems prior to 29 September 2008: 500 MW for solar-thermal systems.
  • Systems registered after 29 September 2008 (PV only).

The capacity limits for the different systems are re-defined during the application of the application conditions (Article 5 RD 1578/2008, Annex III RD 1578/2008). The Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (Article 5 RD 1578/2008). [72]

Since 27 January 2012, Spain has halted acceptance of new projects for the feed-in-tariff. [73] [74] Projects currently accepted are not affected, except that they have adopted, effectively reducing the feed-in-tariff. [75]


See also: Energy policy of Australia

At the federal level, under the Large-Scale Renewable Energy Target (LRET), under the Renewable Energy Electricity Act 2000, large scale solar thermal electricity generation can be licensed (LGCs ). These certificates can be used to meet their obligations under this tradeable certificates scheme. However, this legislation is technology neutral in its operation, it is more likely to be more effective than solar thermal energy and CSP. [76]At State level, renewable energies are typically limited to a maximum generation capacity in kWp, and are only open to solar PV (photovoltaic) generation. This means that larger scale CSP projects would be eligible for payment for incentives in many jurisdictions.


A study done by Greenpeace International , the European Solar Thermal Electricity Association, and the International Energy Agency ‘s SolarPACES group Investigated the potential and future of Concentrated solar power. The increase in investment would be from 2 billion euros worldwide to 92.5 billion euros in that time period. [77] Spain is the leader in concentrated solar power technology, with more than 50 government-approved projects in the works. Also, it exports its technology, further increasing the technology’s stake in energy worldwide. Because the technology works best with areas of high insolation(solar radiation), experts predict the biggest growth in places like Africa, Mexico, and the United States. It indicates that the thermal storage systems based on nitrates ( calcium , potassium , sodium , …) will make the CSP plants more and more profitable. The study examines three different outcomes for this technology: no increases in CSP technology, the growth in Spain and the US, and finally the true potential of CSP without any barriers on its growth. The findings of the third part are shown in the table below:

year Annual
2015 € 21 billion 4,755 MW
2050 € 174 billion 1,500,000 MW

Finally, the study of how to improve the technology was a decrease in the price of 2050. It was predicted to drop from the current range of € 0.23-0.15 / kwh to € 0.14-0.10 / kwh. [77]

The EU Looked Into Developing a € 400 trillion (US $ 774 trillion) network of solar power plants based in the Sahara area using CSP technology to Be Known as Desertec , to create “a new carbon-free network linking Europe, the Middle East and North Africa “. The Plan Was backed Mainly by German industrialized and Predicted output of 15% of Europe’s power by 2050. Morocco Was a major partner in the Desertec and ace It has barely 1% of the electricity consumption of the EU, It Could Produce more than enough energy for the whole country with a large energy surplus to deliver to Europe. [78] Algeria has the biggest area of ​​desert, and private Algerian firm Cevitalsigned up for Desertec. [78]With its wide desert (the highest CSP potential in the Mediterranean and Middle East regions ~ about 170 TWh / year) and its strategic geographic location near Europe, Algeria is one of the key countries to ensure the success of Desertec project. Moreover, with the abundant natural-gas reserve in the Algerian desert, this will strengthen the technical potential of Algeria in acquiring Solar-Gas Hybrid Power Plants for 24-hour electricity generation. Most of the participants pulled out of the effort at the end of 2014.

Other organizations had predicted CSP to cost $ 0.06 (US) / kWh by 2015 due to efficiency and mass production of equipment. [79] That would have made CSP as cheap power. Investors such as venture capitalist Vinod Khoslaexpect CSP to effectively reduce costs and actually be cheaper than coal power after 2015.

In 2009, scientists at the National Energy Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and SkyFuel are teaming up to increase the energy efficiency of their batteries by replacing glass-based models with a silver polymer sheet that has the same performance as the heavy glass mirrors, but at much lower cost and weight. It is much easier to deploy and install. The glossy film uses several layers of polymers, with an inner layer of pure silver.

Telescope Designer Roger Angel ( Univ of Arizona ) has turned his attention to CPV , and is a partner in a company called Rehnu. Angel utilizes a spherical concentrating lens with large-telescope technologies, but much cheaper materials and mechanisms, to create efficient systems. [80]

Recent experience with CSP technology in 2014-2015 at Solana in Arizona, and Ivanpah in Nevada indicate large generation shortfalls in electricity generation between 25% and 40%. Producers blame clouds and stormy weather. These problems are being used to reduce the price of electricity, and threaten the long-term viability of the technology. As photovoltaic costs continue to plummet, many think CSP has a limited future in utility-scale electricity production. [81]

Very large scale Solar Power Plant

There have been several proposals for gigawatt size, very-large-scale solar power plants. They include the Euro-Mediterranean Desertec proposal and Project Helios in Greece (10 GW), both now canceled. A 2003 study concluded that the world could generate 2,357,840 TWh each year from very large scale solar power plants using 1% of each of the world’s deserts. Total consumption worldwide was 15.223 TWh / year [82] (in 2003). The gigawatt size projects would have been arrays of standard-sized single plants. The largest single plant in operation is the 370 MW Ivanpah Solar . In 2012, the BLM made available 97,921,069 acres (39,627,251 hectares) of land in the southwestern United Statesfor solar projects, enough for between 10,000 and 20,000 GW. [83]

Suitable sites

Deserts at high altitude Located in tropics is more suitable for CSP Where the direct normal irradiance is Higher. Abandoned opencast mines , moderate hill slopes and crater depressions may be advantageous in the case of power tower CSP as the power tower can be located on the ground integral with the molten salt storage tank. [84] [85]

Effect on wildlife

Dead warbler burned in mid-air

Insects can be attracted to the bright light caused by concentrated solar technology, and can not be avoided if they are killed. This can also affect raptors who hunt the birds. [86] [87] [88] [89]Federal wildlife officials have begun calling these power towers “mega traps” for wildlife. [90] [91] [92]

According to rigorous reporting, in over six months, actually only 133 singed birds were counted. [93] By focusing no more than four mirrors On Any one up in the air During standby, at Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project , in three months, the death rate dropped to zero. [94]

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