Agrivoltaics is Co-Developing the Saami area of land for Both solar photovoltaic power as well as for conventional agriculture [1] . This technique was originally conceived by Adolf Goetzberger and Armin Zastrow in 1981 [2] . The coexistence of solar panels and the harvesting of these two types of production.


In 1981, Adolf Goetzberger and Armin Zastrow were the first to propose the concept of a dual use of arable land for solar energy production and plant cultivation in order to improve overall production [2] . They were addressing the debate about the competition for arable land between solar energy and crop production. The light saturation point is the maximum amount of absorbable photons by a plant species. As more photons will not increase to the rate of photosynthesis, Akira Nagashima suggests to combine PV systems and farming to use the excess of light. He developed the first prototypes in Japan in 2004 [3] .

The term “agrivoltaic” was used for the first time in a publication in 2011 [4] . The concept is known under several names in the world: “agrophotovoltaics” in Germany [5] [6] , “agrovoltaics” in Italy [7] [8] , “solar sharing” in Asia [3] [9] . Facilities such as photovoltaic greenhouses can be considered as agrivoltaic systems.


There are three types of Agrivoltaics that are being actively researched: solar arrays with space between crops, stilted solar array above crops and greenhouse solar array [1] . All three of these systems have several variables used to maximize solar energy in both the panels and the crops. The variable hand is taken into account for agrivoltaic systems is the angle of the solar panels-called the tilt angle. Other variables taken from the study of the location of the agrivoltaic system are the size of the solar panel and the temperature of the area [1] .


The solar panels of Agrivoltaics affects the environment. Two ways are affecting water flow and heat.

Water Flow

In experiments testing evaporation levels under PVP for shade resistant crops cucumbers and lettuce watered by irrigation, has 14-29% savings in evaporation Was found [1] . Agrivoltaics could be used for crops or areas where water efficiency is imperative [1] .


A study was done on the heat of the land, air and crops under solar panels for a growing season. It was found That while the air beneath the panels consist stayed, the land and plants HAD lower temperature Recorded [1] .


Simulations and studies on Agrivoltaics indicate electricity and shade-resistant crop production. Dinesh and. al. found lettuce output was found to be comparable in Agrivoltaics to monocultures. Aggregoltaics work best for plants that are shade resistant, with potential functioning crops being “hog peanut, alfalfa, yam, taro, cassava, sweet potato” along with lettuce [1] . Simulations performed by Dupraz and. al. found the potential of land productivity to increase by 60-70% [1]. Furthermore, Dinesh and. al. found that the value of solar generated electricity combined with the production of agricultural products. [10] It has been postulated that Agrivoltaics would be beneficial for the production of microclimates and the production of water. [11]


Shade resistant crops are not typically grown in industrial agricultural systems [1] . For instance, wheat crops do not fit in a low light environment, meaning they would not work with Agrivoltaics [1] . Agrivoltaics do not yet work with greenhouses. Greenhouses with half of the roof covered in panels were simulated, and the resulting crop output reduced by 64% and panel productivity reduced by 84%. [12]


  1. ^ Jump up to:d Dinesh, Harshavardhan; Pearce, Joshua M. “The potential of agrivoltaic systems” . Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews . 54: 299-308. doi : 10.1016 / j.rser.2015.10.024 .
  2. ^ Jump up to:b Goetzberger, A .; ZASTROW, A. (1982-01-01). “On the Coexistence of Solar Energy Conversion and Plant Cultivation” . International Journal of Solar Energy . 1 (1): 55-69. doi : 10.1080 / 01425918208909875 . ISSN  0142-5919 .
  3. ^ Jump up to:b “Japan Next-Generation Farmers Cultivate Crops and Solar Energy” . . Retrieved 2017-09-11 .
  4. Jump up^ Dupraz, C .; Marrou, H .; Talbot, G .; Dufour, L .; Nogier, A .; Ferard, Y.”Combining solar photovoltaic panels and food crops for land use optimization: Towards new agrivoltaic schemes” . Renewable Energy . 36(10): 2725-2732. doi : 10.1016 / j.renene.2011.03.005 .
  5. Jump up^ Schindele, Stefan (2013). “Combining Pv And Food Crops To Agrophotovoltaic-Optimization Of Orientation And Harvest”. 13th IAEE European Conference .
  6. Jump up^ “APV Resola” . APV Resola (in German) . Retrieved 2017-09-11 .
  7. Jump up^ “Agrovoltaico, equilibrio perfetto | Rinnovabili” . (in Italian) . Retrieved 2017-09-11 .
  8. Jump up^ “Agrovoltaico – Rem Tec” . Rem Tec . Retrieved 2017-09-11 .
  9. Jump up^ “Japanese Farmers Producing Crops and Solar Energy Simultaneously”. . Retrieved 2017-09-11 .
  10. Jump up^ Harshavardhan Dinesh, Joshua M. Pearce,The Potential of Agrivoltaic Systems,Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,54, 299-308 (2016).
  11. Jump up^ Dupraz, C. “To mix or not to mix: evidences for the unexpected high productivity of agrivoltaic and agroforestry systems” (PDF) . Retrieved 2017-04-14 .
  12. Jump up^ Castellano, Sergio (2014-12-21). “Photovoltaic greenhouses: evaluation of shading effect and its influence on agricultural performance” . Journal of Agricultural Engineering . 45 (4): 168-175. doi : 10.4081 / jae.2014.433 . ISSN  2239-6268 .

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