A solar lamp is also known as solar panel or solar lantern, is a lighting system composed of an LED lamp , solar panel , battery , charge controller and there can also be an inverter . The lamp operates on electricity from batteries, through the use of solar photovoltaic panel.
Solar-powered household lighting can replace other light sources like candles or kerosene lamps . Solar lamps have a lower operating cost than kerosene because of renewable energy, unlike fuel. In addition, solar lamps produce no indoor air pollution unlike kerosene lamps. However, they have a higher initial cost, and are weather dependent.
Solar lamps for use in rural areas often have the capability of providing a supply of electricity for other devices, such as charging phones . American investors have been working towards a $ 10 / unit solar lantern for replacement of kerosene lamps. 
Some solar photovoltaics use Monocrystalline silicon gold polycrystalline silicon panels, while newer technologies have used thin-film solar cells .  Since modern solar cells were introduced in 1954 at Bell labs ,   advances in solar cell efficiency and converts light into electric power, and modern manufacturing techniques combined with efficiencies of scale and international growth of photovoltaics .
As of 2016, LED lamps use only about 10% of the energy incandescent lamp requires.  Efficiency in production of LED lamps has been adopted as an alternative to other electric lighting.
Solar panels are made of crystals that are made of covalent bonds between electrons on the outer shell of silicon atoms. Silicon is a semiconductor which does not include electrical conductors. Semiconductors normally do not conduct electricity but under certain circumstances. 
A solar cell has two different layers of silicon. The lower layer has less electrons and has a slight positive charge due to the negative charge nature of electrons. In addition, the lower layer has more negative effects.
These two layers are called photons, they give up their energy to the atoms in the silicon. It promotes one electron from a covalent bond to a higher level of energy.  This promotion of an electron enables a movement within the crystal which produces a current. More light shines through, more electrons move around This process is called photovoltaic and photoelectric effect.  Photovoltaic systems literally means a combination of light and voltage and they use photovoltaic cells to directly convert sunlight into electricity. 
Table 2, in order of glass, encapsulate, crystalline cells, encapsulate, backsheet, junction box and lastly frame. The encapsulate keeps out moisture and contaminants which could cause problems. 
A battery is usually housed within a metal or plastic case. Inside the case are electrodes including cathodes and anodes where chemical reactions occur. A separator also exists between cathode and anode which stops the electrodes reacting together at the same time. Lastly, the collector conducts a charge from the battery to outside. 
Batteries inside solar lamps usually use gel electrolyte technology with high performance in deep discharging, in order to enable use in extreme ranges of temperature.  It can also use lead-acid, nickel metal hydride, nickel cadmium, lithium gold.
This part of the lamp is available from the solar panel and is available when there is no light energy available.
In general, the efficiency of photovoltaic energy conversion is limited for physical reasons. Around 24% of solar radiation of a long wavelength is not absorbed. 33% is heat lost to surroundings, and further losses are of approximately 15-20%. Only 23% is absorbed which means a battery is a crucial part of solar lamp. 
This section controls the entire working systems to protect battery charge. It ensures, under any circumstances, conditions of extreme weather conditions, and the battery does not overcharge or damage the battery even further. 
This section also includes additional features such as light controller, time controller, sound, temperature compensation, lighting protection, reverse polarity protection, and AC transfer switches. 
LED lights are used for their high luminous efficiency and long life. Under the control of a charge controller DC, non-contact control automatically turns on the light at night and switches off at daytime. It also combines with time controllers to set the time to switch to light on and off. 
As shown in FIG. 3, the chip includes microchip (R), B-, B +, S- and S +. S + and S- are both connected to solar panels with wire, which has more charge and the other minus charge. B- and B + are attached to two batteries in this case. The light will be shown through the LEDs when all of these are connected.
Solar lamps can be easier to install and maintain electricity. Solar lamps can benefit owners with reduced maintenance costs and costs of electricity bills. Solar lamps can also be used where there is no electrical grid or remote areas that lack a reliable electricity supply. There are many stories of people with lung disease, eye deterioration, burns and sometimes even death because they do not have a healthy alternative to light at night. Women have felt unsafe walking to the toilet outside after dark. Babies are being brought to life by women and girls, and they are not studying the issue. These are the realities for over 1 billion people around the globe. Lack of lighting equates to continued poverty around the world. 
Solar energy output can not be used if it is cloudy, wet, or winter. 
Households switching to solar lamps from kerosene Kerosene often has a negative impact on human lungs. 
The use of solar energy minimizes the creation of pollution indoors, where kerosene has been linked to cases of health issues. HOWEVER, photovoltaic panels are made out of silicon and other toxic metals Including Lead That Can Be difficulty to have of. 
The use of solar lights improves education for students who live in households without electricity. When the Unite-To-Light University of South Africa test scores and pass rates improved by over 30%. The light gives students added time to study after dark. 
A 2017 experimental study in unelectrified areas of northern Bangladesh found that the use of solar lanterns decreased total household expenditure, increased children’s home-study hours and higher school attendance. It did not improve the children’s educational attainment to any extent. 
Solar street light
These lights provide a convenient and cost-effective way to light streets with the help of AC electrical grids for pedestrians and drivers. They may have individual panels for each lamp of a system, or may have a large central panel.
In rural India, solar lamps, commonly called solar lanterns, using LEDs or CFLs, are being used to replace kerosene lamps. Especially in areas where electricity is also difficult to access, and will also improve in rural areas. 
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